Rx Drugs Info

arranon (nelarabineinjection 
[GlaxoSmithKline]

WARNING

ARRANON (nelarabine) Injection should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. This product is for intravenous use only.

Neurologic Events

Severe neurologic events have been reported with the use of ARRANON. These events have included altered mental states including severe somnolence, central nervous system effects including convulsions, and peripheral neuropathy ranging from numbness and paresthesias to motor weakness and paralysis. There have also been reports of events associated with demyelination, and ascending peripheral neuropathies similar in appearance to Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Full recovery from these events has not always occurred with cessation of therapy with ARRANON. Close monitoring for neurologic events is strongly recommended, and ARRANON should be discontinued for neurologic events of NCI Common Toxicity Criteria grade 2 or greater.

DESCRIPTION

ARRANON (nelarabine) is a pro-drug of the cytotoxic deoxyguanosine analogue, 9-β-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G).

The chemical name for nelarabine is 2-amino-9-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-6-methoxy-9H-purine. It has the molecular formula C11H15N5O5 and a molecular weight of 297.27. Nelarabine has the following structural formula:

Image from Drug Label Content

Nelarabine is slightly soluble to soluble in water and melts with decomposition between 209° and 217° C.

ARRANON Injection is supplied as a clear, colorless, sterile solution in glass vials. Each vial contains 250 mg of nelarabine (5 mg nelarabine per mL) and the inactive ingredient sodium chloride (4.5 mg per mL) in 50 mL Water for Injection, USP. ARRANON is intended for intravenous infusion.

Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide may have been used to adjust the pH. The solution pH ranges from 5.0 to 7.0.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Nelarabine is a pro-drug of the deoxyguanosine analogue 9-β-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G). Nelarabine is demethylated by adenosine deaminase (ADA) to ara-G, mono-phosphorylated by deoxyguanosine kinase and deoxycytidine kinase, and subsequently converted to the active 5’-triphosphate, ara-GTP. Accumulation of ara-GTP in leukemic blasts allows for incorporation into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell death. Other mechanisms may contribute to the cytotoxic and systemic toxicity of nelarabine.

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetic studies in adult patients with refractory leukemia or lymphoma have demonstrated that nelarabine and ara-G are rapidly eliminated from plasma with a half-life of approximately 30 minutes and 3 hours, respectively, after a 1,500 mg/m2 nelarabine dose. No pharmacokinetic data are available in pediatric patients at the once daily 650 mg/m2 nelarabine dose. Plasma ara-G Cmax values generally occurred at the end of the nelarabine infusion and were generally higher than nelarabine Cmax values, suggesting rapid and extensive conversion of nelarabine to ara-G. Mean plasma nelarabine and ara-G Cmax values were 5.0 ± 3.0 μg/mL and 31.4 ± 5.6 μg/mL, respectively, after a 1,500 mg/m2 nelarabine dose infused over 2 hours in adult patients. Exposure to ara-G (AUC) is 37 times higher than that for nelarabine on Day 1 after nelarabine IV infusion of 1,500 mg/m2 dose (162 ± 49 μg.h/mL versus 4.4 ± 2.2 μg.h/mL, respectively). Comparable Cmax and AUC were obtained for nelarabine between Days 1 and 5 at the proposed nelarabine adult dosage of 1,500 mg/m2, indicating that the pharmacokinetics of nelarabine after multiple-dosing are predictable from single dosing. There are not enough data for ara-G to make a comparison between Day 1 and Day 5. After a nelarabine adult dosage of 1,500 mg/m2, a mean intracellular Cmax for ara-GTP appeared within 3 to 25 hours on Day 1. Exposure (AUC) to intracellular ara-GTP was 532 times higher than that for nelarabine and 14 times higher than that for ara-G (2,339 ± 2,628 μg.h/mL versus 4.4 ± 2.2 μg.h/mL and 162 ± 49 μg.h/mL, respectively). Because the intracellular levels of ara-GTP were so prolonged, its elimination half-life could not be accurately estimated.

Combined Phase 1 pharmacokinetic data at nelarabine doses of 104 to 2,900 mg/m2 indicate that the mean clearance (CL) of nelarabine is about 30% higher in pediatric patients than in adult patients (259 ± 409 L/h/m2 versus 197 ± 189 L/h/m2, respectively) (n = 66 adults, n = 22 pediatric patients) on Day 1. The apparent clearance of ara-G (CL/F) is comparable between the two groups (10.5 ± 4.5 L/h/m2 in adult patients and 11.3 ± 4.2 L/h/m2 in pediatric patients) on Day 1.

Nelarabine and ara-G are extensively distributed throughout the body. Specifically, for nelarabine, VSS values were 197 ± 216 L/m2 and 213 ± 358 L/m2 in adult and pediatric patients, respectively. For ara-G, VSS/F values were 50 ± 24 L/m2 and 33 ± 9.3 L/m2 in adult and pediatric patients, respectively.

Nelarabine and ara-G are not substantially bound to human plasma proteins (<25%) in vitro, and binding is independent of nelarabine or ara-G concentrations up to 600 μM.

Metabolism

The principal route of metabolism for nelarabine is O-demethylation by adenosine deaminase to form ara-G, which undergoes hydrolysis to form guanine. In addition, some nelarabine is hydrolyzed to form methylguanine, which is O-demethylated to form guanine. Guanine is N-deaminated to form xanthine, which is further oxidized to yield uric acid. Ring opening of uric acid followed by further oxidation results in the formation of allantoin.

Excretion

Nelarabine and ara-G are partially eliminated by the kidneys. Mean urinary excretion of nelarabine and ara-G was 6.6 ± 4.7% and 27 ± 15% of the administered dose, respectively, in 28 adult patients over the 24 hours after nelarabine infusion on Day 1. Renal clearance averaged 24 ± 23 L/h for nelarabine and 6.2 ± 5.0 L/h for ara-G in 21 adult patients.

Special Populations

Gender

Gender has no effect on nelarabine or ara-G pharmacokinetics.

Race

Most patients enrolled in Phase 1 studies were Whites. In general, nelarabine mean clearance and volume of distribution values tend to be higher in Whites (n = 63) than in Blacks (by about 10%) (n = 15). The opposite is true for ara-G; mean apparent clearance and volume of distribution values tend to be lower in Whites than in Blacks (by about 15-20%). No differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these groups.

Geriatrics

Age has no effect on the pharmacokinetics of nelarabine or ara-G. Decreased renal function, which is more common in the elderly, may reduce ara-G clearance (see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use).

Pediatrics

No pharmacokinetic data are available in pediatric patients at the once daily 650 mg/m2 nelarabine dosage. Combined Phase 1 pharmacokinetic data at nelarabine doses of 104 to 2,900 mg/m2 indicate that the mean clearance (CL) of nelarabine is about 30% higher in pediatric patients than in adult patients (259 ± 409 L/h/m2 versus 197 ± 189 L/h/m2, respectively) (n = 66 adults, n = 22 pediatric patients) on Day 1. The apparent clearance of ara-G (CL/F) is comparable between the two groups (10.5 ± 4.5 L/h/m2 in adult patients and 11.3 ± 4.2 L/h/m2 in pediatric patients) on Day 1.

Nelarabine and ara-G are extensively distributed throughout the body. Specifically, for nelarabine, VSS values were 197 ± 216 L/m2 and 213 ± 358 L/m2 in adult and pediatric patients, respectively. For ara-G, VSS/F values were 50 ± 24 L/m2 and 33 ± 9.3 L/m2 in adult and pediatric patients, respectively.

Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of nelarabine and ara-G have not been specifically studied in renally impaired or hemodialyzed patients. Nelarabine is excreted by the kidney to a small extent (5 to 10% of the administered dose). Ara-G is excreted by the kidney to a greater extent (20 to 30% of the administered nelarabine dose). Patients were categorized into 3 groups: normal with CLcr >80 mL/min (n = 67), mild with CLcr = 50-80 mL/min (n = 15), and moderate with CLcr<50 mL/min (n = 3). The mean apparent clearance (CL/F) of ara-G was about 15% and 40% lower in patients with mild and moderate renal impairment, respectively, than in patients with normal renal function (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). No differences in safety or effectiveness were observed.

Hepatic Impairment

The influence of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of nelarabine has not been evaluated.

Drug Interactions

Nelarabine and ara-G did not significantly inhibit the activities of the human hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 3A4 in vitro at concentrations of nelarabine and ara-G up to 100 μM.

Administration of fludarabine 30 mg/m2 as a 30-minute infusion 4 hours before a 1,200 mg/m2 infusion of nelarabine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nelarabine, ara-G, or ara-GTP in 12 patients with refractory leukemia.

CLINICAL STUDIES

The safety and efficacy of ARRANON were evaluated in two open-label, single-arm, multicenter studies.

Pediatric Clinical Study

The safety and efficacy of ARRANON in pediatric patients were studied in a clinical trial conducted by the Children’s Oncology Group (COG P9673). This study included patients 21 years of age and younger, who had relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL). Eighty-four (84) patients, 39 of whom had received two or more prior induction regimens, were treated with 650 mg/m2/day of ARRANON administered intravenously over 1 hour daily for 5 consecutive days repeated every 21 days (see Table 1). Patients who experienced signs or symptoms of grade 2 or greater neurologic toxicity on therapy were to be discontinued from further therapy with ARRANON.

Table 1. Pediatric Clinical Study - Patient Allocation

Patient Population

N

Patients treated at 650 mg/m2/dayx 5 days every 21 days.

84

Patients with T-ALL or T-LBL with two or more prior induction treated at 650 mg/m2/dayx 5 days every 21 days.

39

Patients with T-ALL or T-LBL with one prior induction treated at 650 mg/m2/dayx 5 days every 21 days.

31

The 84 patients ranged in age from 2.5-21.7 years (overall mean, 11.9 years), 52% were 3 to 12 years of age and most were male (74%) and Caucasian (62%). The majority (77%) of patients had a diagnosis of T-ALL.

Complete response (CR) in this study was defined as bone marrow blast counts ≤5%, no other evidence of disease, and full recovery of peripheral blood counts. Complete response without full hematologic recovery (CR*) was also assessed as a meaningful outcome in this heavily pretreated population. Duration of response is reported from date of response to date of relapse, and may include subsequent stem cell transplant. Efficacy results are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Efficacy Results in Patients 21 Years of Age and Younger at Diagnosis With ≥2 Prior Inductions Treated with 650 mg/m2 of ARRANON Administered Intravenously Over 1 Hour Daily for 5 Consecutive Days Repeated Every 21 Days

N = 39

CR plus CR* % (n) [95% CI]

23% (9) [11%, 39%]

CR % (n) [95% CI]

13% (5) [4%, 27%]

CR* % (n) [95% CI]

10% (4) [3%, 24%]

Duration of CR plus CR* (range in weeks)1

3.3 to 9.3

Median overall survival (weeks) [95% CI]

13.1 [8.7, 17.4]

CR = Complete response

CR* = Complete response without hematologic recovery

1 Does not include 5 patients who were transplanted or had subsequent systemic chemotherapy (duration of response in these 5 patients was 4.7 to 42.1 weeks).

The mean number of days on therapy was 46 days (range of 7 to 129 days). Median time to CR plus CR* was 3.4 weeks (95% CI: 3.0, 3.7).

Adult Clinical Study

The safety and efficacy of ARRANON in adult patients were studied in a clinical trial conducted by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB). This study included 39 treated patients, 28 who had T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) that had relapsed following or was refractory to at least two prior induction regimens. ARRANON 1,500 mg/m2 was administered intravenously over 2 hours on days 1, 3 and 5 repeated every 21 days. Patients who experienced signs or symptoms of grade 2 or greater neurologic toxicity on therapy were to be discontinued from further therapy with ARRANON. Seventeen patients had a diagnosis of T-ALL and 11 had a diagnosis of T-LBL. For patients with ≥2 prior inductions, the age range was 16-65 years (mean 34 years) and most patients were male (82%) and Caucasian (61%). Patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease were not eligible.

Complete response (CR) in this study was defined as bone marrow blast counts ≤5%, no other evidence of disease, and full recovery of peripheral blood counts. Complete response without complete hematologic recovery (CR*) was also assessed. The results of the study for patients who had received ≥2 prior inductions are shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Efficacy Results in Adult Patients With ≥2 Prior Inductions Treated with 1,500 mg/m2 of ARRANON Administered Intravenously Over 2 Hours on Days 1, 3, and 5 Repeated Every 21 Days

N = 28

CR plus CR* % (n) [95% CI]

21% (6) [8%, 41%]

CR % (n) [95% CI]

18% (5) [6%, 37%]

CR* % (n) [95% CI]

4% (1) [0%, 18%]

Duration of CR plus CR* (range in weeks)1

4 to 195+

Median overall survival (weeks) [95% CI]

20.6 weeks [10.4, 36.4]

CR = Complete response

CR* = Complete response without hematologic recovery

1 Does not include 1 patient who was transplanted (duration of response was 156+ weeks).

The mean number of days on therapy was 56 days (range of 10 to 136 days). Time to CR plus CR* ranged from 2.9 to 11.7 weeks.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ARRANON is indicated for the treatment of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma whose disease has not responded to or has relapsed following treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens. This use is based on the induction of complete responses. Randomized trials demonstrating increased survival or other clinical benefit have not been conducted.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

ARRANON is contraindicated in patients who have a history of hypersensitivity to nelarabine or any other components of ARRANON.

WARNINGS

ARRANON should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of antineoplastic therapy.

Neurologic Events (see boxed WARNING)

ARRANON is a potent antineoplastic agent with potentially significant toxic side effects. Neurotoxicity is the dose-limiting toxicity of nelarabine. Patients undergoing therapy with ARRANON should be closely observed for signs and symptoms of neurologic toxicity.

Common signs and symptoms of nelarabine-related neurotoxicity include somnolence, confusion, convulsions, ataxia, paresthesias, and hypoesthesia. Severe neurologic toxicity can manifest as coma, status epilepticus, craniospinal demyelination, or ascending neuropathy similar in presentation to Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Patients treated previously or concurrently with intrathecal chemotherapy or previously with craniospinal irradiation may be at increased risk for neurologic adverse events. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.

Pregnancy Category D

ARRANON may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no studies of ARRANON in pregnant women. When compared to controls, nelarabine administration during the period of organogenesis caused increased incidences of fetal malformations, anomalies, and variations in rabbits at doses ≥360 mg/m2/day (8-hour IV infusion; approximately ¼ the adult dose compared on a mg/m2 basis), which was the lowest dose tested. Cleft palate was seen in rabbits given 3,600 mg/m2/day (approximately 2-fold the adult dose), absent pollices (digits) in rabbits given ≥1,200 mg/m2/day (approximately ¾ the adult dose), while absent gall bladder, absent accessory lung lobes, fused or extra sternebrae and delayed ossification was seen at all doses. Maternal body weight gain and fetal body weights were reduced in rabbits given 3,600 mg/m2/day (approximately 2-fold the adult dose), but could not account for the increased incidence of malformations seen at this or lower administered doses. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be warned of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of child-bearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with ARRANON.

PRECAUTIONS

Hematologic

Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutropenia, including febrile neutropenia have been associated with nelarabine therapy. Complete blood counts including platelets should be monitored regularly (see ADVERSE REACTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

General

Patients receiving ARRANON should receive intravenous hydration according to standard medical practice for the management of hyperuricemia in patients at risk for tumor lysis syndrome. Consideration should be given to the use of allopurinol in patients at risk of hyperuricemia.

Administration of live vaccines to immunocompromised patients should be avoided.

Information for Patients

Since patients receiving nelarabine therapy may experience somnolence, they should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles.

Patients should be instructed to contact their physician if they experience new or worsening symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). These signs and symptoms include: tingling or numbness in fingers, hands, toes, or feet; difficulty with the fine motor coordination tasks such as buttoning clothing; unsteadiness while walking; weakness arising from a low chair; weakness in climbing stairs; increased tripping while walking over uneven surfaces.

Patients should be instructed that seizures have been known to occur in patients who receive nelarabine. If a seizure occurs, the physician administering ARRANON should be promptly informed.

Patients who develop fever or signs of infection while on therapy should notify their physician promptly.

Patients should be advised to use effective contraceptive measures to prevent pregnancy and to avoid breast feeding during treatment with ARRANON.

Drug Interactions

Nelarabine and ara-G did not significantly inhibit the activities of the human hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 3A4 in vitro at concentrations of nelarabine and ara-G up to 100 μM.

There is in vitro evidence that pentostatin is a strong inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. This may result in a reduction in the conversion of the pro-drug nelarabine to its active moiety and consequently in a reduction in efficacy of nelarabine and/or change in adverse event profile of either drug. Administration of nelarabine in combination with adenosine deaminase inhibitors, such as pentostatin, is not recommended.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity testing of nelarabine has not been done. However, nelarabine was mutagenic when tested in vitro in L5178Y/TK mouse lymphoma cells with and without metabolic activation. No studies have been conducted in animals to assess genotoxic potential or effects on fertility. The effect on human fertility is unknown.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D. (See WARNINGS.)

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether nelarabine or ara-G are excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ARRANON, nursing should be discontinued in women who are receiving therapy with ARRANON.

Pediatric Use

(See CLINICAL STUDIES, Pediatric Clinical Study).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of ARRANON did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In an exploratory analysis, increasing age, especially age 65 years and older, appeared to be associated with increased rates of neurologic adverse events.

Use in Renally Impaired Patients

Ara-G clearance decreased as renal function decreased (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Because the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr<30 mL/min), these patients should be closely monitored for toxicities when treated with ARRANON (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Use in Hepatically Impaired Patients

The influence of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of nelarabine has not been evaluated. Because the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with severe hepatic impairment (bilirubin >3.0 mg/dL), these patients should be closely monitored for toxicities when treated with ARRANON.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

ARRANON was studied in 459 patients in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. The safety profile for the recommended dosages of ARRANON is based on data from 103 adult patients enrolled and treated in the CALGB 19801 and an adult chronic lymphocytic leukemia study (PGAA2003) who were treated with the recommended dose and schedule. The safety profile for children is based on data from 84 pediatric patients enrolled and treated in the COG P9673 study who were treated with the recommended dose and schedule.

The most common adverse events in pediatric patients, regardless of causality, were hematologic disorders (anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia). Of the non-hematologic adverse events in pediatric patients, the most frequent events reported were headache, increased transaminase levels, decreased blood potassium, decreased blood albumin, increased blood bilirubin, and vomiting.

The most common adverse events in adults, regardless of causality, were fatigue; gastrointestinal (GI) disorders (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and constipation); hematologic disorders ( anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia); respiratory disorders (cough and dyspnea); nervous system disorders (somnolence and dizziness); and pyrexia.

The most common adverse events by System Organ Class, regardless of causality, including severe or life threatening events (NCI Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3 or grade 4) and fatal events (grade 5) are shown in Table 4 for pediatric patients and Table 5 for adult patients.

Table 4. Most Commonly Reported (≥5% Overall) Adverse Events Regardless of Causality in Pediatric Patients Treated with 650 mg/m2 of ARRANON Administered Intravenously Over 1 Hour Daily for 5 Consecutive Days Repeated Every 21 Days

System Organ Class

Preferred Term

Percentage of Patients: 650 mg/m2; N = 84

Toxicity Grade

Grade 3

%

Grade 4+

%

All Grades

%

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Anemia

45

10

95

Neutropenia

17

62

94

Thrombocytopenia

27

32

88

Leukopenia

14

7

38

Hepatobiliary Disorders

Transaminases increased

4

0

12

Blood albumin decreased

5

1

10

Blood bilirubin increased

7

2

10

Metabolic/Laboratory

Blood potassium decreased

4

2

11

Blood calcium decreased

1

1

8

Blood creatinine increased

0

0

6

Blood glucose decreased

4

0

6

Blood magnesium decreased

2

0

6

Nervous System Disorders (see Table 6)

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Vomiting

0

0

10

General Disorders & Administration Site Conditions

Asthenia

1

0

6

Infections& Infestations

Infection

2

1

5

Grade 4+ = Grade 4 and Grade 5

Three (3) patients had a fatal event. Fatal events included neutropenia and pyrexia (n = 1), status epilepticus/seizure (n = 1), and fungal pneumonia (n = 1). The status epilepticus was thought to be related to treatment with ARRANON. All other fatal events were unrelated to treatment with ARRANON.

Table 5. Most Commonly Reported (≥5% Overall) Adverse Events Regardless of Causality in Adult Patients Treated with 1,500 mg/m2 of ARRANON Administered Intravenously Over 2 Hours on Days 1, 3, and 5 Repeated Every 21 Days

System Organ Class

Preferred Term

Percentage of Patients; N = 103

Toxicity Grade

Grade 3

%

Grade 4+

%

All Grades

%

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders

Anemia

20

14

99

Thrombocytopenia

37

22

86

Neutropenia

14

49

81

Febrile neutropenia

9

1

12

Cardiac Disorders

Sinus tachycardia

1

0

8

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Nausea

0

0

41

Diarrhea

1

0

22

Vomiting

1

0

22

Constipation

1

0

21

Abdominal pain

1

0

9

Stomatitis

1

0

8

Abdominal distension

0

0

6

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions

Fatigue

10

2

50

Pyrexia

5

0

23

Asthenia

0

1

17

Edema, peripheral

0

0

15

Edema

0

0

11

Pain

3

0

11

Rigors

0

0

8

Gait, abnormal

0

0

6

Chest pain

0

0

5

Non-cardiac chest pain

0

1

5

Infections

Infection

2

1

9

Pneumonia

4

1

8

Sinusitis

1

0

7

Hepatobiliary Disorders

AST increased

1

1

6

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders

Anorexia

0

0

9

Dehydration

3

1

7

Hyperglycemia

1

0

6

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders

Myalgia

1

0

13

Arthralgia

1

0

9

Back pain

0

0

8

Muscular weakness

5

0

8

Pain in extremity

1

0

7

Nervous System Disorders (see Table 7)

Psychiatric Disorders

Confusional state

2

0

8

Insomnia

0

0

7

Depression

1

0

6

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders

Cough

0

0

25

Dyspnea

4

2

20

Pleural effusion

5

1

10

Epistaxis

0

0

8

Dyspnea, exertional

0

0

7

Wheezing

0

0

5

Vascular Disorders

Petechiae

2

0

12

Hypotension

1

1

8

Grade 4+ = Grade 4 and Grade 5

Five (5) patients had a fatal event. Fatal events included hypotension (n=1), respiratory arrest (n=1), pleural effusion/pneumothorax (n = 1), pneumonia (n = 1), and cerebral hemorrhage/coma/leukoencephalopathy (n = 1). The cerebral hemorrhage/coma/leukoencephalopathy was thought to be related to treatment with ARRANON. All other fatal events were unrelated to treatment with ARRANON.

Other Adverse Events

Blurred vision was also reported in 4% of adult patients.

There was a single report of biopsy confirmed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the adult patient population.

There have been reports of sometimes fatal opportunistic infections in patients receiving ARRANON.

Neurologic Adverse Events

Nervous system events, regardless of drug relationship, were reported for 64% of patients across the Phase I and Phase II studies.

Pediatric

The most common neurologic adverse events (≥2%), regardless of causality, including all grades (NCI Common Toxicity Criteria) are shown in Table 6 for pediatric patients.

Table 6. Neurologic Adverse Events (≥2%) Regardless of Causality in Pediatric Patients Treated with 650 mg/m2 of ARRANON Administered Intravenously Over 1 Hour Daily for 5 Consecutive Days Repeated Every 21 Days

Nervous System Disorders

Preferred Term

Percentage of Patients; N = 84

Grade 1

%

Grade 2

%

Grade 3

%

Grade 4+

%

All Grades

%

Headache

8

2

4

2

17

Peripheral neurologic disorders, any event

1

4

7

0

12

Peripheral neuropathy

0

4

2

0

6

Peripheral motor neuropathy

1

0

2

0

4

Peripheral sensory neuropathy

0

0

6

0

6

Somnolence

1

4

1

1

7

Hypoesthesia

1

1

4

0

6

Seizures

0

0

0

6

6

Convulsions

0

0

0

3

4

Grand mal convulsions

0

0

0

1

1

Status epilepticus

0

0

0

1

1

Motor dysfunction

1

1

1

0

4

Nervous system disorder

1

2

0

0

4

Paresthesia

0

2

1

0

4

Tremor

1

2

0

0

4

Ataxia

1

0

1

0

2

Grade 4+ = Grade 4 and Grade 5

One (1) patient had a fatal neurologic event, status epilepticus. This event was thought to be related to treatment with ARRANON.

The other grade 3 event in pediatric patients, regardless of causality, was hypertonia reported in 1 patient (1%). The additional grade 4+ events, regardless of causality, were 3rd nerve paralysis, and 6th nerve paralysis, each reported in 1 patient (1%).

The other neurologic adverse events, regardless of causality, reported as grade 1, 2, or unknown in pediatric patients were dysarthria, encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, hyporeflexia, lethargy, mental impairment, paralysis, and sensory loss, each reported in 1 patient (1%).

Adults

The most common neurologic adverse events (≥2%), regardless of causality, including all grades (NCI Common Toxicity Criteria) are shown in Table 7 for adult patients.

Table 7. Neurologic Adverse Events (≥2%) Regardless of Causality in Adult Patients Treated with 1,500 mg/m2 of ARRANON Administered Intravenously Over 2 Hours on Days 1, 3, and 5 Repeated Every 21 Days

Nervous System Disorders

Preferred Term

Percentage of Patients; N =103

Grade 1

%

Grade 2

%

Grade 3

%

Grade 4

%

All Grades

%

Somnolence

20

3

0

0

23

Dizziness

14

8

0

0

21

Peripheral neurologic disorders, any event

8

12

2

0

21

Neuropathy

0

4

0

0

4

Peripheral neuropathy

2

2

1

0

5

Peripheral motor neuropathy

3

3

1

0

7

Peripheral sensory neuropathy

7

6

0

0

13

Hypoesthesia

5

10

2

0

17

Headache

11

3

1

0

15

Paresthesia

11

4

0

0

15

Ataxia

1

6

2

0

9

Depressed level of consciousness

4

1

0

1

6

Tremor

2

3

0

0

5

Amnesia

2

1

0

0

3

Dysgeusia

2

1

0

0

3

Balance disorder

1

1

0

0

2

Sensory loss

0

2

0

0

2

One (1) patient had a fatal neurologic event, cerebral hemorrhage/coma/leukoencephalopathy. This event was thought to be related to treatment with ARRANON.

Most nervous system events in the adult patients were evaluated as grade 1 or 2. The additional grade 3 events in adult patients, regardless of causality, were aphasia, convulsion, hemiparesis, and loss of consciousness, each reported in 1 patient (1%). The additional grade 4 events, regardless of causality, were cerebral hemorrhage, coma, intracranial hemorrhage, leukoencephalopathy, and metabolic encephalopathy, each reported in one patient (1%).

The other neurologic adverse events, regardless of causality, reported as grade 1, 2, or unknown in adult patients were abnormal coordination, burning sensation, disturbance in attention, dysarthria, hyporeflexia, neuropathic pain, nystagmus, peroneal nerve palsy, sciatica, sensory disturbance, sinus headache, and speech disorder, each reported in one patient (1%).

Other Neurologic Events

There have also been reports of events associated with demyelination and ascending peripheral neuropathies similar in appearance to Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Adverse Reactions from Other Clinical Programs

In addition to the safety data from the pivotal clinical trials, tumor lysis syndrome has been observed (see PRECAUTIONS, General).

OVERDOSAGE

There is no known antidote for overdoses of ARRANON. It is anticipated that overdosage would result in severe neurotoxicity (possibly including paralysis, coma), myelosuppression, and potentially death. In the event of overdose, supportive care consistent with good clinical practice should be provided.

Nelarabine has been administered in clinical trials up to a dose of 2,900 mg/m2 on days 1, 3, and 5 to 2 adult patients. At a dose of 2,200 mg/m2 given on days 1, 3, and 5 every 21 days, 2 patients developed a significant grade 3 ascending sensory neuropathy. MRI evaluations of the 2 patients demonstrated findings consistent with a demyelinating process in the cervical spine.

A single IV dose of 4,800 mg/m2 was lethal in monkeys, and was associated with CNS signs including reduced/shallow respiration, reduced reflexes, and flaccid muscle tone.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Preparation for Administration

ARRANON is not diluted prior to administration. The appropriate dose of ARRANON is transferred into polyvinylchloride (PVC) infusion bags or glass containers and administered as a two-hour infusion in adult patients and as a one-hour infusion in pediatric patients.

Prior to administration, inspect the drug product visually for particulate matter and discoloration.

Adult Dosage

The recommended adult dose of ARRANON is 1,500 mg/m2 administered intravenously over 2 hours on days 1, 3, and 5 repeated every 21 days. ARRANON is administered undiluted.

Pediatric Dosage

The recommended pediatric dose of ARRANON is 650 mg/m2 administered intravenously over 1 hour daily for 5 consecutive days repeated every 21 days. ARRANON is administered undiluted.

The recommended duration of treatment for adult and pediatric patients has not been clearly established. In clinical trials, treatment was generally continued until there was evidence of disease progression, the patient experienced unacceptabletoxicity, the patient became a candidate for bone marrow transplant, or the patient no longer continued to benefit from treatment.

Supportive Care

Appropriate measures (e.g., hydration, urine alkalinization, and prophylaxis with allopurinol) must be taken to prevent hyperuricemia of tumor lysis syndrome.

Dose Modification

ARRANON should be discontinued for neurologic events of NCI Common Toxicity Criteria grade 2 or greater. Dosage may be delayed for other toxicity including hematologic toxicity.

Adjustment of Dose in Special Populations

ARRANON has not been studied in patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS). No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with a CLcr≥50 mL/min (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Renal Impairment). There are insufficient data to support a dose recommendation for CLcr<50 mL/min.

Precautions

ARRANON is a cytotoxic agent. Caution should be used during handling and preparation. Use of gloves and other protective clothing to prevent skin contact is recommended. Proper aseptic technique should be used.

Stability

Nelarabine Injection is stable in polyvinylchloride (PVC) infusion bags and glass containers for up to 8 hours at up to 30° C.

Handling and Disposal

Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be used. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.1-9

There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.

HOW SUPPLIED

ARRANON Injection is supplied as a clear, colorless, sterile solution in Type I, clear glass vials with a gray butyl rubber (latex-free) stopper and a red snap-off aluminum seal. Each vial contains 250 mg of nelarabine (5 mg nelarabine per mL) and the inactive ingredient sodium chloride (4.5 mg per mL) in 50 mL Water for Injection, USP. Vials are available in the following carton sizes:

NDC 0007-4401-01 (package of 1)

NDC 0007-4401-06 (package of 6)

Store at 25° C (77° F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30° C (59° to 86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

REFERENCES

  1. ONS Clinical Practice Committee. Cancer Chemotherapy Guidelines and Recommendations for Practice. Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society; 1999:32-41.
  2. Recommendations for the safe handling of parenteral antineoplastic drugs. Washington, DC: Division of Safety, Clinical Center Pharmacy Department and Cancer Nursing Services, National Institutes of Health and Human Services, 1992, US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service publication NIH 92-2621.
  3. AMA Council on Scientific Affairs. Guidelines for handling parenteral antineoplastics. JAMA. 1985;253:1590-1591.
  4. National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure. Recommendations for handling cytotoxic agents. 1987. Available from Louis P. Jeffrey, Chairman, National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure. Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, 179 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.
  5. Clinical Oncological Society of Australia. Guidelines and recommendations for safe handling of antineoplastic agents. Med J Australia. 1983;1:426-428.
  6. Jones RB, Frank R, Mass T. Safe handling of chemotherapeutic agents: a report from the Mount Sinai Medical Center. CA-A Cancer J for Clin. 1983;33:258-263.
  7. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP technical assistance bulletin on handling cytotoxic and hazardous drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47:1033-1049.
  8. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. (OSHA Work-Practice Guidelines.) Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1996;53:1669-1685.
  9. Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings. NIOSH Alert 2004-165.

GlaxoSmithKline

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

ARRANON is a registered trademark of GlaxoSmithKline.

©2006, GlaxoSmithKline. All rights reserved.

July 2006 RL-2297

PHARMACIST-DETACH HERE AND GIVE INSTRUCTIONS TO PATIENT

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

PATIENT INFORMATION LEAFLET

ARRANON® (AIR-ra-non)

Nelarabine Injection

Read the Patient Information that comes with ARRANON before you or your child start treatment with ARRANON. Read the information you get each time before each treatment with ARRANON. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking with the doctor about your or your child’s medical condition or treatment. Talk to your or your child’s doctor, if you have any questions.

What is the most important information I should know about ARRANON?

ARRANON may cause serious nervous system problems including:

Call the doctor right away if you or your child has the following symptoms:

These symptoms may not go away even when treatment with ARRANON is stopped.

What is ARRANON?

Who should not take ARRANON?

You or your child should not take ARRANON if you or your child are allergic to nelarabine, or to anything else in ARRANON.

What should I tell the doctor before I or my child starts ARRANON?

Tell the doctor about all health conditions you or your child have, including if you or your child:

Tell the doctor about all the medicines you or your child take, including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

How is ARRANON given?

What should I or my child avoid during treatment with ARRANON?

What are the possible side effects of ARRANON?

ARRANON may cause serious nervous system problems. See “What is the most important information I should know about ARRANON?”

ARRANON may also cause:

Blood tests should be done regularly to check blood counts.

These are not all the side effects associated with ARRANON. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

General Advice about ARRANON

This leaflet summarizes important information about ARRANON. If you have questions or problems, talk with your or your child’s doctor. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about ARRANON that is written for healthcare providers or it is available at www.GSK.com.

GlaxoSmithKline

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

ARRANON is a registered trademark of GlaxoSmithKline.

©2006, GlaxoSmithKline. All rights reserved.

July 2006 RL-2297


ARRANON (nelarabine)
PRODUCT INFO
Product Code 0007-4401 Dosage Form INJECTION
Route Of Administration INTRAVENOUS DEA Schedule
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
nelarabine (nelarabine) Active 5 MILLIGRAM  In 1 MILLILITER
sodium chloride Inactive 4.5 MILLIGRAM  In 1 MILLILITER
Water Inactive  
IMPRINT INFORMATION
Characteristic Appearance Characteristic Appearance
Color Score
Shape Symbol
Imprint Code Coating
Size
PACKAGING
# NDC Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 0007-4401-01 1 VIAL In 1 CARTON contains a VIAL, GLASS
1 250 MILLILITER In 1 VIAL, GLASS This package is contained within the CARTON (0007-4401-01)
2 0007-4401-06 6 VIAL In 1 CARTON contains a VIAL, GLASS
2 250 MILLILITER In 1 VIAL, GLASS This package is contained within the CARTON (0007-4401-06)

Revised: 07/2006GlaxoSmithKline

Data are from FDA and U.S. National Library of Medicine.