Rx Drugs Info

azathioprine sodium (Azathioprine Sodiuminjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution 
[Bedford Laboratories]

Rx ONLY.

WARNING

Chronic immunosuppression with this purine antimetabolite increases risk of neoplasia in humans. Physicians using this drug should be very familiar with this risk as well as with the mutagenic potential to both men and women and with possible hematologic toxicities. See WARNINGS.

DESCRIPTION

Azathioprine Sodium for Injection is a sterile lyophilized material, which when reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection yields a solution for intravenous administration. Each vial contains azathioprine sodium equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine, an immunosuppressive antimetabolite. Each vial also contains sodium hydroxide and, if necessary, hydrochloric acid to adjust the pH.

Azathioprine is chemically 6-[(1-methyl-4-nitroimidazol-5-yl)thio]purine. The structural formula of azathioprine sodium is:

Image from Drug Label Content

Molecular Formula: C9H7N7O2SNa                     Molecular Weight: 300.28

It is an imidazolyl derivative of 6-mercaptopurine and many of its biological effects are similar to those of the parent compound.

The sodium salt of azathioprine is sufficiently soluble to make a 10 mg/mL water solution which is stable for 24 hours at 59° to 77°F (15° to 25°C). Azathioprine is stable in solution at neutral or acid pH but hydrolysis to mercaptopurine occurs in excess sodium hydroxide (0.1N), especially on warming. Conversion to mercaptopurine also occurs in the presence of sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine, glutathione and hydrogen sulfide.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Metabolism1

Azathioprine is well absorbed following oral administration. Maximum serum radioactivity occurs at one to two hours after oral 35S-azathioprine and decays with a half-life of five hours. This is not an estimate of the half-life of azathioprine itself but is the decay rate for all 35S-containing metabolites of the drug. Because of extensive metabolism, only a fraction of the radioactivity is present as azathioprine. Usual doses produce blood levels of azathioprine, and of mercaptopurine derived from it, which are low (<1 µg/mL). Blood levels are of little predictive value for therapy since the magnitude and duration of clinical effects correlate with thiopurine nucleotide levels in tissues rather than with plasma drug levels. Azathioprine and mercaptopurine are moderately bound to serum proteins (30%) and are partially dialyzable.

Azathioprine is cleaved in vivo to mercaptopurine. Both compounds are rapidly eliminated from blood and are oxidized or methylated in erythrocytes and liver; no azathioprine or mercaptopurine is detectable in urine after eight hours. Conversion to inactive 6-thiouric acid by xanthine oxidase is an important degradative pathway, and the inhibition of this pathway in patients receiving allopurinol is the basis for the azathioprine dosage reduction required in these patients (see Drug Interactions under PRECAUTIONS). Proportions of metabolites are different in individual patients, and this presumably accounts for variable magnitude and duration of drug effects. Renal clearance is probably not important in predicting biological effectiveness or toxicities, although dose reduction is practiced in patients with poor renal function.

Homograft Survival1,2

Summary information from transplant centers and registries indicates relatively universal use of azathioprine with or without other immunosuppressive agents.3,4,5 Although the use of azathioprine for inhibition of renal homograft rejection is well established, the mechanism(s) for this action are somewhat obscure. The drug suppresses hypersensitivities of the cell-mediated type and causes variable alterations in antibody production. Suppression of T-cell effects, including ablation of T-cell suppression, is dependent on the temporal relationship to antigenic stimulus or engraftment. This agent has little effect on established graft rejections or secondary responses.

Alterations in specific immune responses or immunologic functions in transplant recipients are difficult to relate specifically to immunosuppression by azathioprine. These patients have subnormal responses to vaccines, low numbers to T-cells, and abnormal phagocytosis by peripheral blood cells, but their mitogenic responses, serum immunoglobulins and secondary antibody responses are usually normal.

Immunoinflammatory Response

Azathioprine suppresses disease manifestations as well as underlying pathology in animal models of auto-immune disease. For example, the severity of adjuvant arthritis is reduced by azathioprine.

The mechanisms whereby azathioprine affects auto-immune diseases are not known. Azathioprine is immunosuppressive, delayed hypersensitivity and cellular cytotoxicity tests being suppressed to a greater degree than are antibody responses. In the rat model of adjuvant arthritis, azathioprine has been shown to inhibit the lymph node hyperplasia which precedes the onset of the signs of the disease. Both the immunosuppressive and therapeutic effects in animal models are dose-related. Azathioprine is considered a slow-acting drug and effects may persist after the drug has been discontinued.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Azathioprine Sodium for Injection is indicated as an adjunct for the prevention of rejection in renal homotransplantation. It is also indicated for the management of severe, active rheumatoid arthritis unresponsive to rest, aspirin or other nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs, or to agents in the class of which gold is an example.

Renal Homotransplantation

Azathioprine is indicated as an adjunct for the prevention of rejection in renal homotransplantation. Experience with over 16,000 transplants shows a five-year patient survival of 35% to 55%, but this is dependent on donor, match for HLA antigens, anti-donor or anti B-cell alloantigen antibody and other variables. The effect of azathioprine on these variables has not been tested in controlled trials.

Rheumatoid Arthritis6,7

Azathioprine is indicated only in adult patients meeting criteria for classic or definite rheumatoid arthritis as specified by the American Rheumatism Association.8 Azathioprine should be restricted to patients with severe, active and erosive disease not responsive to conventional management including rest, aspirin and other non-steriodal drugs or to agents in the class of which gold is an example. Rest, physiotherapy and salicylates should be continued while azathioprine is given, but it may be possible to reduce the dose of corticosteriods in patients on azathioprine. The combined use of azathioprine with gold, antimalarials or penicillamine has not been studied for either added benefit or unexpected adverse effects. The use of azathioprine with these agents cannot be recommended.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Azathioprine Sodium for Injection should not be given to patients who have shown hypersensitivity to the drug.

Azathioprine should not be used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in pregnant women.

Patients with rheumatiod arthritis previously treated with alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, melphalan or others) may have a prohibitive risk of neoplasia if treated with azathioprine.9

WARNINGS

Severe leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia may occur in patients on azathioprine. Macrocytic anemia and severe bone marrow depression may also occur. Hematologic toxicities are dose related and may be more severe in renal transplant patients whose homograft is undergoing rejection. It is suggested that patients on azathioprine have complete blood counts, including platelet counts, weekly during the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months of treatment, then monthly or more frequently if dosage alterations or other therapy changes are necessary. Delayed hematologic suppression may occur. Prompt reduction in dosage or temporary withdrawal of the drug may be necessary if there is a rapid fall in, or persistently low leukocyte count or other evidence of bone marrow depression. Leukopenia does not correlate with therapeutic effect; therefore the dose should not be increased intentionally to lower the white blood cell count.

Serious infections are a constant hazard for patients receiving chronic immunosuppression, especially for homograft recipients. Fungal, viral, bacterial and protozoal infections may be fatal and should be treated vigorously. Reduction of azathioprine dosage and/or use of other drugs should be considered.

Azathioprine is mutagenic in animals and humans, carcinogenic in animals, and may increase the patient’s risk of neoplasia. Renal transplant patients are known to have an increased risk of malignancy, predominantly skin cancer and reticulum cell or lymphomatous tumors.10 The risk of post-transplant lymphomas may be increased in patients who receive aggressive treatment with immunosuppresive drugs.11 The degree of immunosuppression is determined not only by the immunosuppressive regimen but also by a number of other patient factors. The number of immunosuppressive agents may not necessarily increase the risk of post-transplant lymphomas. However, transplant patients who receive multiple immunosuppressive agents may be at risk for over-immunosuppression; therefore, immunosuppressive drug therapy should be maintained at the lowest effective levels. Information is available on the spontaneous neoplasia risk in rheumatoid arthritis,12,13 and on neoplasia following immunosuppressive therapy of other autoimmune diseases.14,15 It has not been possible to define the precise risk of neoplasia due to azathioprine.16 The data suggest the risk may be elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, though lower than for renal transplant patients.11,13 However, acute myelogenous leukemia as well as solid tumors have been reported in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have received azathioprine. Data on neoplasia in patients receiving azathioprine can be found under ADVERSE REACTIONS.

Azathioprine has been reported to cause temporary depression in spermatogenesis and reduction in sperm viability and sperm count in mice at doses 10 times the human therapeutic dose17; a reduced percentage of fertile matings occurred when animals received 5 mg/kg.18

Pregnancy: "Pregnancy Category D"

Azathioprine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Azathioprine should not be given during pregnancy without careful weighing of risk versus benefit. Whenever possible, use of azathioprine in pregnant patients should be avoided. This drug should not be used for treating rheumatoid arthritis in pregnant women.19

Azathioprine is teratogenic in rabbits and mice when given in doses equivalent to the human dose (5 mg/kg daily). Abnormalities included skeletal malformations and visceral anomalies.18

Limited immunologic and other abnormalities have occured in a few infants born of renal allograft recipients on azathioprine. In a detailed case report,20 documented lymphopenia, diminished IgG and IgM levels, CMV infection, and a decreased thymic shadow were noted in an infant born to a mother receiving 150 mg azathioprine and 30 mg prednisone daily throughout pregnancy. At ten weeks most features were normalized. DeWitte et al21 reported pancytopenia and severe immune deficiency in a pre-term infant whose mother received 125 mg azathioprine and 12.5 mg prednisone daily. There have been two published reports of abnormal physical findings. Williamson and Karp22 described an infant born with preaxial polydactyly whose mother received azathioprine 200 mg daily and prednisone 20 mg every other day during pregnancy. Tallent et al23 described an infant with a large myelomeningocele in the upper lumbar region, bilateral dislocated hips, and bilateral talipes equinovarus. The father was on long-term azathioprine therapy.

Benefit versus risk must be weighed carefully before use of azathioprine in patients of reproductive potential. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. Women of childbearing age should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant.

PRECAUTIONS

General

A gastrointestinal hypersensitivity reaction characterized by severe nausea and vomiting has been reported.24,25,26 These symptoms may also be accompanied by diarrhea, rash, fever, malaise, myalgias, elevations in liver enzymes, and occasionally, hypotension. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity most often develop within the first several weeks of azathioprine therapy and are reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. The reaction can recur within hours after rechallenge with a single dose of azathioprine.

Information for Patients

Patients being started on azathioprine should be informed of the necessity of periodic blood counts while they are receiving the drug and should be encouraged to report any unusual bleeding or bruising to their physician. They should be informed of the danger of infection while receiving azathioprine and asked to report signs and symptoms of infection to their physician. Careful dosage instructions should be given to the patient, especially when azathioprine is being administered in the presence of impaired renal function or concomitantly with allopurinol (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Drug Interactions under PRECAUTIONS). Patients should be advised of the potential risks of the use of azathioprine during pregnancy and during the nursing period. The increased risk of neoplasia following azathioprine therapy should be explained to the patient.

Laboratory Tests

See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.

Drug Interactions

Use with Allopurinol

The principal pathway for detoxification of azathioprine is inhibited by allopurinol. Patients receiving azathioprine and allopurinol concomitantly should have a dose reduction of azathioprine to approximately 1/3 to 1/4 the usual dose.

Use with Other Agents Effecting Myelopoesis

Drugs which may affect leukocyte production, including co-trimoxazole, may lead to exaggerated leukopenia, especially in renal transplant recipients.27

Use with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors to control hypertension in patients on azathioprine has been reported to induce severe leukopenia.28

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

See WARNINGS section.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effect, Pregnancy Category D

See WARNINGS section.

Nursing Mothers

The use of azathioprine in nursing mothers is not recommended. Azathioprine or its metabolites are transferred at low levels, both transplacentally and in breast milk.29,30,31 Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for azathioprine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy of azathioprine in children have not been established.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The principal and potentially serious toxic effects of azathioprine are hematologic and gastrointestinal. The risks of secondary infection and neoplasia are also significant (see WARNINGS). The frequency and severity of adverse reactions depend on the dose and duration of azathioprine as well as on the patient’s underlying disease or concomitant therapies. The incidence of hematologic toxicities and neoplasia encountered in groups of renal homograft recipients is significantly higher than that in employing azathioprine for rheumatoid arthritis. The relative incidences in clinical studies are summarized below:

*
Data on the rate and risk of neoplasia among persons with rheumatoid arthritis treated with azathioprine are limited. The incidence of lymphoproliferative disease in patients with RA appears to be significantly higher than that in the general population.12 In one completed study, the rate of lymphoproliferative disease in RA patients receiving higher than recommended doses of azathioprine (5 mg/kg/day) was 1.8 cases per 1000 patient years of follow-up, compared with 0.8 cases per 1000 patient years of follow-up in those not receiving azathioprine.13 However, the proportion of the increased risk attributable to the azathioprine dosage or to other therapies (ie., alkylating agents) received by azathioprine-treated patients cannot be determined.
Toxicity Renal Homograft Rheumatoid Arthritis
Leukopenia
Any Degree >50% 28%
<2500/mm3 16% 5.3%
Infections 20% <1%
Neoplasia *
Lymphoma 0.5%
Others 2.8%

Hematologic

Leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia are dose dependent and may occur late in the course of azathioprine therapy. Dose reduction or temporary withdrawal allows reversal of these toxicities. Infection may occur as a secondary manifestation of bone marrow suppression or leukopenia, but the incidence of infection in renal homotransplantation is 30 to 60 times that in rheumatoid arthritis. Macrocytic anemia and/or bleeding have been reported in two patients on azathioprine.

Gastrointestinal

Nausea and vomiting may occur within the first few months of azathioprine therapy, and occurred in approximately 12% of 676 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The frequency of gastric disturbance often can be reduced by administration of the drug in divided doses and/or after meals. However, in some patients, nausea and vomiting may be severe and may be accompanied by symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, malaise, and myalgias (see PRECAUTIONS). Vomiting with abdominal pain may occur rarely with a hypersensitivity pancreatitis. Hepatotoxicity manifest by elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and/or serum transaminases is known to occur following azathioprine use, primarily in allograft recipients. Hepatotoxicity has been uncommon (less than 1%) in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Hepatotoxicity following transplantation most often occurs within 6 months of transplantation and is generally reversible after interruption of azathioprine. A rare, but life-threatening hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with chronic administration of azathioprine has been described in transplant patients and in one patient receiving azathioprine for panuveitis.32,33,34 Periodic measurement of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin is indicated for early detection of hepatotoxicity. If hepatic veno-occlusive disease is clinically suspected, azathioprine should be permanently withdrawn.

Others

Additional side effects of low frequency have been reported. These include skin rashes (approximately 2%), alopecia, fever, arthralgias, diarrhea, steatorrhea and negative nitrogen balance (all less than 1%).

OVERDOSAGE

The oral LD50s for single doses of azathioprine in mice and rats are 2500 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Very large doses of this antimetabolite may lead to marrow hypoplasia, bleeding, infection, and death. About 30% of azathioprine is bound to serum proteins, but approximately 45% is removed during an 8 hour hemodialysis.35 A single case has been reported of a renal transplant patient who ingested a single dose of 7500 mg azathioprine. The immediate toxic reactions were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, followed by mild leukopenia, and mild abnormalities in liver function. The white blood cell count, SGOT, and bilirubin returned to normal six days after the overdose. 

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Renal Homotransplantation

The dose of azathioprine required to prevent rejection and minimize toxicity will vary with individual patients; this necessitates careful management. The initial dose is usually 3 to 5 mg/kg daily, beginning at the time of transplant. Azathioprine is usually given as a single daily dose on the day of, and in a minority of cases one to three days before, transplantation. Azathioprine is often initiated with the intravenous administration of the sodium salt, with subsequent use of tablets (at the same dose level) after the post-operative period. Intravenous administration of the sodium salt is indicated only in patients unable to tolerate oral medications. Dose reduction to maintenance levels of 1 to 3 mg/kg daily is usually possible. The dose of azathioprine should not be increased to toxic levels because of threatened rejection. Discontinuation may be necessary for severe hematologic or other toxicity, even if rejection of the homograft may be a consequence of drug withdrawal.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Azathioprine is usually given on a daily basis. The initial dose should be approximately 1 mg/kg (50 to 100 mg) given as a single dose or on a twice daily schedule. The dose may be increased, beginning at six to eight weeks and thereafter by steps at four-week intervals, if there are no serious toxicities and if initial response is unsatisfactory. Dose increments should be 0.5 mg/kg daily, up to a maximum dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day. Therapeutic response occurs after several weeks of treatment, usually six to eight; an adequate trial should be a minimum of 12 weeks. Patients not improved after twelve weeks can be considered refractory. Azathioprine may be continued long-term in patients with clinical response, but patients should be monitored carefully, and gradual dosage reduction should be attempted to reduce risk of toxicities.

Maintenance therapy should be at the lowest effective dose, and the dose given can be lowered decrementally with changes of 0.5 mg/kg or approximately 25 mg daily every four weeks while other therapy is kept constant. The optimum duration of maintenance azathioprine has not been determined. Azathioprine can be discontinued abruptly, but delayed effects are possible.

Use in Renal Dysfunction

Relatively oliguric patients, especially those with tubular necrosis in the immediate post-cadaveric transplant period, may have delayed clearance of azathioprine or its metabolites, may be particularly sensitive to this drug and are usually given lower doses.

Parenteral Administration

Add 10 mL of Sterile Water for Injection, and swirl until a clear solution results. This solution, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine, is for intravenous use only; it has a pH of approximately 9.6 and it should be used within twenty-four hours. Further dilution into sterile saline or dextrose is usually made for infusion; the final volume depends on time for the

infusion, usually 30 to 60 minutes, but as short as 5 minutes and as long as 8 hours for the daily dose.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

Procedures for proper handling and disposal of this immunosuppresive antimetabolite drug should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published.36-42 There is no general agreement that all of the procedures recommended in the guidelines are necessary or appropriate.

HOW SUPPLIED

Azathioprine Sodium for Injection, USP, is supplied in a 20 mL vial, each containing azathioprine sodium, equivalent to 100 mg azathioprine.

NDC 55390-600-20.

Store between 15° to 25°C (59° to 77°F).

Protect from light. Retain in carton until time of use.

REFERENCES

  1. Elion GB, Hitchings GH, Azathioprine. In: Sartorelli AC. Johns DG, eds. Antineoplastic and Immunosuppresive Agents Pt. II. New York, NY: Springer Verlag; 1975:chap 48.
  2. McIntosh J, Hansen P, Ziegler J, et al. Defective immune and phagocytic functions in uraemia and renal transplantation. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1976;15:544-549.
  3. Renal Transplant Registry Advisory Committee. The 12th report of the Human Renal Transplant Registry. JAMA. 1975;223:787-796.
  4. McGeown M. Immunosuppression for kidney transplantation. Lancet. 1973;2:310-312.
  5. Simmons RL, Thompson EJ, Yunis EJ, et al. 115 Patients with first cadaver kidney transplants followed two to seven and a half years: a multifactorial analysis. Am J Med. 1977;62:234-242.
  6. Fye K, Talal N. Cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Ration Drug Ther. 1975;9(4):1-5.
  7. Davis JD, Muss HB, Turner RA. Cytotoxic agents in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. South Med J. 1978;71:58-64.
  8. McEwen C. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In: Hollander JL. ed. Arthritis and Allied Conditions: A Textbook of Rheumatology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger; 1972:403-418.
  9. Hoover R, Fraumeni JF. Drug-induced cancer. Cancer. 1981;47(5):1071-1080.
  10. Hoover R, Fraumeni Jr. Risk of cancer in renal transplant recipients. Lancet. 1973;2:55-57.
  11. Wilkinson AH, Smith JL, Hunsicker LG, et al. Increased frequency of post-transplant lymphomas in patients treated with cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisone. Transplantation. 1989;47:293-296.
  12. Prior P, Symmons DPM, Hawkins CF, et al. Cancer morbidity in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1984; 43:128-131.
  13. Silman AJ, Petrie J, Hazelman B, et al. Lymphoproliferative cancer and other malignancy in patients with rheumatiod arthritis treated with azathioprine: a 20 year follow up study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1988;47:988-992.
  14. Louie S, Schwartz RS. Immunodeficiency and pathogenesis of lymphoma and leukemia. Semin Hematol. 1978;15:117-138.
  15. Wang KK, Czaja AJ, Beaver SJ, et al. Extra hepatic malignancy following long-term immunosuppresive therapy of severe hepatitis B surface antigen-negative chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology. 1989;10:39-43.
  16. Sieber SM, Adamson RH. Toxicity of antineoplastic agents in man: chromosomal aberrations, antifertility effects, congenital malformations, and carcinogenic potential. In: Klein G. Weinhouse S, eds. Advances in Cancer Research, v 22. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1975:57-155.
  17. Clark JM. The mutagenicity of azathioprine in mice, Drosophila Melanogaster and Neurospora Crassa. Mut Res. 1975;28(1):87-99.
  18. Data on file, Burroughs Wellcome Co.
  19. Tagatz GE, Simmons RL. Pregnancy after renal transplantation. Ann Intern Med. 1975;82:113-114. Editorial Notes.
  20. Coté CJ, Meuwissen HJ, Pickering RJ. Effects on the neonate of prednisone and azathioprine administered to the mother during pregnancy. J Pediatr. 1974;85(3):324-328.
  21. DeWitte DB, Buick MK, Stephen EC, et al. Neonatal pancytopenia and severe combined immunodeficiency associated with antenatal administration of azathioprine and prednisone. J Pediatr. 1984;105(4):625-628.
  22. Williamson RA, Karp LE. Azathioprine teratogenicity: review of the literature and case report. Obstet Gynocol. 1981;58:247-250.
  23. Tallent MB, Simmons RL, Najarian JS: Birth defects in child of male recipient of kidney transplant. JAMA. 1970;211(11):1854-1855.
  24. Assini JF, Hamilton R, Strosberg JM. Adverse reactions to azathioprine mimicking gastroenteritis. J Rheumatol. 1986;13:1117-1118.
  25. Cochrane D, Adamson AR, Halsey JP. Adverse reactions to azathioprine mimicking gastroenteritis. J Rheumatol. 1987;14:1075.
  26. Cox J, Daneshmend JK, Hawley CJ, et al. Devastating diarrhoea caused by azathioprine: management difficulty in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1988;29(5):686-688.
  27. Bradley PP, Warden GD, Maxwell JG, et al. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in renalallograft recipients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Ann Int Med. 1980;93:560-562.
  28. Kirchertz EJ, Grone HJ, Rieger J, et al. Successful low dose captopril rechallenge following drug-induced leucopenia. Lancet. 1981;8234:1362-1363.
  29. Nelson D, Bugge C. Data on file, Burroughs Wellcome Co.
  30. Säärikoski S, Seppälä M. Immunosuppression during pregnancy: transmission of azathioprine and its metabolites from the mother to the fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973;115:1100-1106.
  31. Coulam CB; Moyer TP, Jiang NS, et al. Breast-feeding after renal tranplantation. Transplant Proc. 1982;14:605-609.
  32. Read AE, Wiesner RH, LaBrecque DR, et al. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with renal transplantation and azathioprine therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104:651-655.
  33. Katzka DA, Saul SH, Jorkasky D, et al. Azathioprine and hepatic venocclusive disease in renal transplant patients. Gastroenterology. 1986;90:446-454.
  34. Weitz H, Gokel JM, Loeschke K, et al. Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Virchows Arch A. 1982;395:245-256.
  35. Schusziarra V, Ziekursch V, Schlamp R, et al. Pharmacokinetics of azathioprine under haemodialysis. Int J Clin Pharmacol Biopharm. 1976;14(4):298-302.
  36. Recommendations for the safe handling of parenteral antineoplastic drugs. Washington, DC: Division of Safety, National Institutes of Health; 1983. US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service publication NIH 83-2621.
  37. AMA Council on Scientific Affairs. Guidelines for handling parenteral antineoplastics. JAMA. 1985;253:1590-1591.
  38. National Study Commission on Cytotoxic Exposure - Recommendations for Handling Cytotoxic Agents. 1984. Available from Louis P. Jeffrey, Sc.D., Director of Pharmacy Services, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, Rhode Island 02902.
  39. Clinical Oncological Society of Australia. Guidelines and recommendations for safehandling of antineoplastic agents. Med J Australia. 1983;1:426-428.
  40. Jones RB, Frank R, Mass T. Safe handling of chemotherapeutic agents: a report from the Mount Sinai Medical Center. CA-A Cancer J for Clin. 1983;33(Sept./Oct.):258-263.
  41. American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP technical assistance bulletin on handling cytotoxic and hazardous drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47:1033-1049.
  42. Yodaiken RE, Bennett D. OSHA work-practice guidelines for personnel dealing with cytotoxic (antineoplastic) drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1986;43:1193-1204.

Manufactured for:                                                                                                             AZP02

Bedford Laboratories™                                                                                                     Rev. 02/99

Bedford, Ohio 44146

Manufactured by:

Ben Venue Laboratories, Inc.

Bedford, Ohio 44146


Azathioprine Sodium (Azathioprine Sodium)
PRODUCT INFO
Product Code 55390-600 Dosage Form INJECTION, POWDER, LYOPHILIZED, FOR SOLUTION
Route Of Administration INTRAVENOUS DEA Schedule
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
azathioprine sodium (azathioprine) Active 100 MILLIGRAM  In 10 MILLILITER
hydrochloric acid Inactive  
sodium hydroxide Inactive  
IMPRINT INFORMATION
Characteristic Appearance Characteristic Appearance
Color Score
Shape Symbol
Imprint Code Coating
Size
PACKAGING
# NDC Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 55390-600-20 1 VIAL In 1 BOX, UNIT-DOSE contains a VIAL
1 10 MILLILITER In 1 VIAL This package is contained within the BOX, UNIT-DOSE (55390-600-20)

Revised: 01/2008Bedford Laboratories

Data are from FDA and U.S. National Library of Medicine.