evoclin (clindamycin phosphate) aerosol, foam
Evoclin Foam contains clindamycin phosphate, USP, a topical antibiotic for topical dermatologic use.
Clindamycin phosphate is a water-soluble ester of the semi-synthetic antibiotic produced by a 7 (S)-chloro-substitution of the 7 (R)-hydroxyl group of the parent antibiotic, lincomycin.
The chemical name for clindamycin phosphate is methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans-4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo-a-Dgalacto-octopyranoside 2-(dihydrogen phosphate), with the empirical formula C18H34CIN2O8PS, a molecular weight of 504.97. The following is the chemical structure:
Evoclin® (clindamycin phosphate) Foam, 1%, contains clindamycin phosphate,USP, at a concentration equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per gram in a thermolabile hydroethanolic foam vehicle consisting of cetyl alcohol, ethanol (58%), polysorbate 60, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, purified water, and stearyl alcohol pressurized with a hydrocarbon (propane/butane) propellant.
In an open label, parallel group study in 24 patients with acne vulgaris, 12 patients (3 male and 9 female) applied 4 grams of Evoclin Foam once-daily for five days, and 12 patients (7 male and 5 female) applied 4 grams of Clindagel® (clindamycin phosphate) Topical Gel, 1%, once daily for five days. On Day 5, the mean Cmax and AUC(0-12) were 23% and 9% lower, respectively, for Evoclin Foam than for Clindagel®.
Following multiple applications of Evoclin Foam less than 0.024% of the total dose was excreted unchanged in the urine over 12 hours on Day 5.
The clindamycin component has been shown to have in vitro activity against Propionibacterium acnes, an organism which is associated with acne vulgaris; however, the clinical significance of this activity against P. acnes was not examined in clinical trials with this product. Cross-resistance between clindamycin and erythromycin has been demonstrated.
In one multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris used Evoclin (clindamycin phosphate) Foam, 1% or the vehicle foam once daily for twelve weeks. Treatment response, defined as the proportion of patients clear or almost clear, based on the Investigator Static Global Assessment (ISGA), and the mean percent reductions in lesion counts at the end of treatment in this study are shown in the following table:
|Evoclin Foam||Vehicle Foam|
|Treatment response (ISGA)||31%||18%*|
|Percent reduction in lesion counts|
Evoclin is indicated for topical application in the treatment of acne vulgaris. In view of the potential for diarrhea, bloody diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, the physician should consider whether other agents are more appropriate. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Evoclin is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to preparations containing clindamycin or lincomycin, a history of regional enteritis or ulcerative colitis, or a history of antibiotic-associated colitis.
Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis, which may result in patient death. Use of the topical formulation of clindamycin results in absorption of the antibiotic from the skin surface. Diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with the use of topical and systemic clindamycin.
Studies indicate a toxin(s) produced by Clostridia is one primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. Endoscopic examination may reveal pseudomembranous colitis. Stool culture for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically.
When significant diarrhea occurs, the drug should be discontinued. Large bowel endoscopy should be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea. Antiperistaltic agents, such as opiates and diphenoxylate with atropine, may prolong and/or worsen the condition.
Diarrhea, colitis, and pseudomembranous colitis have been observed to begin up to several weeks following cessation of oral and parenteral therapy with clindamycin.
Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against C. difficile colitis.
Avoid contact of Evoclin with eyes. If contact occurs, rinse eyes thoroughly with water.
Evoclin should be prescribed with caution in atopic individuals.
Clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
The carcinogenicity of a 1% clindamycin phosphate gel similar to Evoclin was evaluated by daily application to mice for two years. The daily doses used in this study were approximately 3 and 15 times higher than the human dose of clindamycin phosphate from 5 milliliters of Evoclin, assuming complete absorption and based on a body surface area comparison. No significant increase in tumors was noted in the treated animals.
A 1% clindamycin phosphate gel similar to Evoclin caused a statistically significant shortening of the median time to tumor onset in a study in hairless mice in which tumors were induced by exposure to simulated sunlight.
Genotoxicity tests performed included a rat micronucleus test and an Ames Salmonella reversion test. Both tests were negative.
Reproduction studies in rats using oral doses of clindamycin hydrochloride and clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility.
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice using subcutaneous and oral doses of clindamycin phosphate, clindamycin hydrochloride and clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride. These studies revealed no evidence of fetal harm. The highest dose used in the rat and mouse teratogenicity studies was equivalent to a clindamycin phosphate dose of 432 mg/kg. For a rat, this dose is 84 fold higher, and for a mouse 42 fold higher, than the anticipated human dose of clindamycin phosphate from Evoclin based on a mg/m2 comparison. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether clindamycin is excreted in human milk following use of Evoclin. However, orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been reported to appear in breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Safety and effectiveness of Evoclin in children under the age of 12 have not been studied.
The clinical study with Evoclin did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine if they respond differently than younger patients.
The incidence of adverse events occurring in ≥1% of the patients in clinical studies comparing Evoclin and its vehicle is presented below:
|Adverse Event||Number (%) of Subjects|
|Evoclin Foam||Vehicle Foam|
|N = 439||N = 154|
|Headache||12 (3%)||1 (1%)|
|Application site burning||27 (6%)||14 (9%)|
|Application site pruritus||5 (1%)||5 (3%)|
|Application site dryness||4 (1%)||5 (3%)|
|Application site reaction,not otherwise specified||3 (1%)||4 (3%)|
In a contact sensitization study, none of the 203 subjects developed evidence of allergic contact sensitization to Evoclin.
Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis, which may end fatally.
Cases of diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported as adverse reactions in patients treated with oral and parenteral formulations of clindamycin and rarely with topical clindamycin (see WARNINGS). Abdominal pain and gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as gramnegative folliculitis, have also been reported in association with the use of topical formulations of clindamycin.
Topically applied Evoclin may be absorbed in sufficient amounts to produce systemic effects (see WARNINGS).
Apply Evoclin once daily to affected areas after the skin is washed with mild soap and allowed to fully dry. Use enough to cover the entire affected area.
Evoclin containing clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 10 mg clindamycin per gram, is available in the following sizes: 100 gram can - NDC 63032-061-00 and 50 gram can - NDC 63032-061-50
Store at controlled room temperature 68–77°F (20–25°C).
FLAMMABLE. AVOID FIRE, FLAME OR SMOKING DURING AND IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING APPLICATION.
Contents under pressure. Do not puncture or incinerate. Do not expose to heat or store at temperature above 120°F (49°C).
Keep out of reach of children.
Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA
For additional information: 1-888-500-DERM or visit www.evoclin.com
AW No: AW-0507
U.S. Patent Pending
The wisp logo and the VersaFoam-HF are trademarks, and Evoclin, the V logo, the interlocking C design and Connetics are registered trademarks of Connetics Corporation.
© 2004–2006 Connetics Corporation
|Evoclin (clindamycin phosphate)|
Data are from FDA and U.S. National Library of Medicine.