periogard (chlorhexidine gluconate) liquid
[Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals Inc.]
PerioGard (Chlorhexidine Gluconate Oral Rinse, 0.12%) is an oral rinse containing 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate [N,N”-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-3,12-diimino-2,4,11,13-tetraazatetradecanediimidamide di-D-gluconate] in a base containing water, 11.6% alcohol, glycerin, PEG-40 sorbitan diisostearate, flavor, sodium saccharin, and FD&C Blue No. 1. PerioGard Oral Rinse is a near-neutral solution (pH range 5-7). Chlorhexidine gluconate is a salt of chlorhexidine and gluconic acid, with a molecular formula of C22H30Cl2N10∙2C6H2O7 and a molecular weight calculated to be 897.77. Its chemical Structure is:
PerioGard Oral Rinse provides antimicrobial activity during oral rinsing. The clinical significance of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse’s antimicrobial activities is not clear. Microbiological sampling of plaque has shown a general reduction of counts of certain assayed bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, ranging from 54-97% through six months’ use. Use of chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse in a six-month clinical study did not result in any significant changes in bacterial resistance, overgrowth of potentially opportunistic organisms or other adverse changes in the oral microbial ecosystem. Three months after chlorhexidine gluconate use was discontinued, the number of bacteria in plaque had returned to baseline levels and resistance of plaque bacteria to chlorhexidine gluconate was equal to that at baseline.
Pharmacokinetic Studies with a 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse indicate approximately 30% of the active ingredient is retained in the oral cavity following rinsing. This retained drug is slowly released into the oral fluids. Studies conducted on human subjects and animals demonstrate chlorhexidine gluconate is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The mean plasma level of chlorhexidine gluconate reached a peak of 0.206 µg/g in humans 30 minutes after they ingested a 300 mg dose of the drug. Detectable levels of chlorhexidine gluconate were not present in the plasma of these subjects 12 hours after the compound was administered.
Excretion of chlorhexidine gluconate occurred primarily through the feces (~90%). Less than 1% of the chlorhexidine gluconate ingested by these subjects was excreted in the urine.
PerioGard Oral Rinse is indicated for use between dental visits as part of a professional program for the treatment of gingivitis as characterized by redness and swelling of the gingivae, including gingival bleeding upon probing. PerioGard Oral Rinse has not been tested among patients with acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG). For patients having coexisting gingivitis and periodontitis, see PRECAUTIONS.
PerioGard Oral Rinse should not be used by persons who are known to be hypersensitive to chlorhexidine gluconate or other formula ingredients.
The effect of PerioGard Oral Rinse on periodontitis has not been determined. An increase in supragingival calculus was noted in clinical testing with users of chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse compared with control users. It is not known if chlorhexidine gluconate use results in an increase in subgingival calculus. Calculus deposits should be removed by a dental prophylaxis at intervals not greater than six months. Hypersensitivity and generalized allergic reactions have occurred. See CONTRAINDICATIONS.
In a drinking water study in rats, carcinogenic effects were not observed at doses up to 38 mg/kg/day. Mutagenic effects were not observed in two mammalian in vivo mutagensis studies with chlorhexidine gluconate. The highest doses of chlorhexidine used in a mouse dominant-lethal assay and a hamster cytogenetics test were 1000 mg/kg/day and 250 mg/kg/day, respectively. No evidence of impaired fertility was observed in rats at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day.
Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at chlorhexidine gluconate doses up to 300 mg/kg/day and 40mg/kg/day, respectively, and have not revealed evidence of harm to the fetus. However, adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have not been done. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human
milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution
should be exercised when PerioGard Oral Rinse is administered to
a nursing woman.
In parturition and lactation studies with rats, no evidence of impaired parturition or of toxic effects to suckling pups was observed when chlorhexidine gluconate was administered to dams at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day.
Clinical effectiveness and safety of PerioGard Oral Rinse have not been established in children under the age of 18.
The most common side effects associated with chlorhexidine
gluconate oral rinses are: (1) an increase in staining of teeth and
other oral surfaces, (2) an increase in calculus formation, and (3) an
alteration in taste perception; see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS. Oral irritation and local allergy-type symptoms
have been spontaneously reported as side effects associated with use of
chlorhexidine gluconate rinse. The following oral mucosal side effects
were reported during placebo-controlled adult clinical trials: aphthous
ulcer, grossly obvious gingivitis, trauma, ulceration, erythema,
desquamation, coated tongue, keratinization, geographic tongue,
mucocele, and short frenum. Each occurred at a frequency of less than
1.0%. Among postmarketing reports, the most frequently reported oral mucosal symptoms associated with chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse
are stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, ulcer, dry mouth, hypesthesia,
glossal edema, and paresthesia. Minor irritation and superficial
desquamation of the oral mucosa have been noted in patients using
chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinses.
There have been cases of parotid gland swelling and inflammation of the salivary glands (sialadentitis) reported in patients using chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinse.
Ingestion of 1 or 2 ounces of PerioGard Oral Rinse by a small child (~10 kg body weight) might result in gastric distress, including nausea, or signs of alcohol intoxication. Medical attention should be sought if more than 4 ounces of PerioGard Oral Rinse is ingested by a small child or if signs of alcohol intoxication develop.
PerioGard Oral Rinse therapy should be initiated directly following a dental prophylaxis. Patients using PerioGard Oral Rinse should be reevaluated and given a thorough prophylaxis at intervals no longer than six months. Recommended use is twice daily oral rinsing for 30 seconds, morning and evening after toothbrushing. Usual dosage is½ fl. oz. (“15mL” line on dosage cap) of undiluted PerioGard Oral Rinse. Patients should be instructed not to rinse with water or other mouthwashes, brush teeth, or eat immediately after using PerioGard Oral Rinse. PerioGard Oral Rinse is not intended for ingestion and should be expectorated after rinsing.
PerioGard Oral Rinse is supplied as a blue liquid in 16 fluid ounce amber plastic bottle with child-resistant dosage cap. Store above freezing (32° F).
Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of
300 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10022 U.S.A. Rev. 08/06
|PerioGard (chlorhexidine gluconate)|
Data are from FDA and U.S. National Library of Medicine.